Morgantown Dominion Post
16 November 2008
ALBANY, N.Y. Advanced drilling techniques that blast millions of gallons of water into 400-millionyear-old shale formations a mile underground are opening up unconventional gas fields touted as a key to the nations energy future.
These deposits, where natural gas is so tightly locked in deep rocks that its costly and complicated to extract, include the Barnett shale in Texas, the Fayetteville of Arkansas, and the Haynesville of Louisiana. But the mother lode is the Marcellus shale underlying the Appalachians.
Geologists call the Marcellus a super giant gas field. Penn State geoscientist Terry Engelder believes it could supply the natural gas needs of the United States for 14 years.
But as word spread over the past year that a 54,000-square-mile shale field from southern New York to West Virginia promised to yield a trillion dollars worth of gas, making millionaires of local landowners, environmental alarms were sounded.
Would gas wells damage water wells? Would chemicals poison groundwater? Would fabled trout streams be sucked dry? Would the pristine upstate reservoirs that supply drinking water to New York City be befouled?
This gas well drilling could transform the heavily forested upper Delaware watershed from a wild and scenic natural habitat into an ugly industrial landscape that is forever changed, said Tracy Carluccio of Delaware Riverkeeper. Shed like a moratorium on drilling to allow an inventory of natural areas to be done first.
So loud were the protests in New York that Gov. David Paterson directed the Department of Environmental Conservation to update its oil and gas drilling regulations to reflect the advanced drilling technology, which uses millions of gallons of water and poses waste-disposal challenges.
Now, while new drilling rigs sprout in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, development of the Marcellus in New York is on hold until next year, while the DEC holds hearings and drafts regulations.
Gas developers say environmental alarms are exaggerated and New York could miss out on much-needed capital investment and jobs if it takes a heavy-handed regulatory approach.
These are surgical operations utilizing the most advanced drilling technology known to man, Tom Price Jr., senior vice president of Chesapeake Energy, told state lawmakers in Albany at a recent hearing.
The technology that has raised concern involves horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking. Thousands of wells have been drilled and fracked in New York in the past 50 years, New York DEC Commissioner Pete Grannis said. But refinement of the technology makes it feasible to extract gas from deeper, denser shales.
The latest technology, known as slick water fracturing, uses far more water than earlier methods 1 million to 5 million gallons for each fracking operation, Grannis said. That fact, and the proximity of the Marcellus to New York Citys watershed, prompted the regulatory review.
New York and Pennsylvania regulators promise full disclosure of all chemicals used in fracking, which industry insiders say are not hazardous. John Pinkerton, chairman and CEO of Range Resources, said used fracking fluid is no more toxic than what goes down the drain at a hair salon.
Roger Willis, who owns a hydraulic fracturing company in Meadville, Pa., said thousands of frack jobs have been done in rock formations above and below the Marcellus shale in New York state with no damage to aquifers.
Willis said frack fluids are isolated from groundwater by steel and concrete well casings. The well bore goes thousands of feet deeper than potable water supplies, through multiple layers of rock, until it reaches the gas-rich shale. Then it turns sideways and continues horizontally for several thousand feet.